The use of electromagnetic fields for wellness dates back to the 19th century, and the scientific studies regarding the benefits and applications of PEMF are extensive. While this page is by no means a comprehensive list of research articles, it does contain the studies most often referenced in Pulse's print and digital resources. 

As you explore and reference these items, please keep in mind that Pulse PEMF products should not be used to diagnose, treat, or cure any physical or medical conditions. Our PEMF systems are meant for general wellness and have not been evaluated by the FDA. 

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Pierce M. Incorporating Energy Medicine in Your Chiropractic Practice Through Pulsed Electromagnetic (PEMF) Therapy. American Chiropractor, Jun2012; 34(6): 52-54. (3p)

"Energy medicine through PEMF therapy is a key new modality for wellness chiropractors as it promotes natural and measurable wellness and healing down to the cellular level in every tissue, bone and organ of the body."



Tucker J. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy: Biohacking Part III. American Chiropractor, (2019, November 11), 41, 44-45.

"When the energy fields pass seamlessly into the cells of the area, the cells absorb that energy. In this way, the electromagnetic fields exercise and energize those cells. PEMF practitioners can direct electromagnetic fields towards 'spot' areas of a patient's body that have injuries or other damage, or they can provide 'broad' area treatment to improve self-reported psychometric measures of sleep, mood, and quality of life (life satisfaction) without adverse effects. That's why PEMF sessions are often called 'cellular exercise' and are popular among biohackers."

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Jeon HS, Kang SY, Park JH, Lee HS. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on delayed-onset muscle soreness in biceps brachii. Phys Ther Sport. 2015;16(1):34-39. doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2014.02.006

"Overall, the application of the PEMF was found to be effective in reducing the physiological deficits associated with DOMS [delayed onset muscle soreness], including improved recovery of perceived muscle soreness, MDF, and EMD during isometric contraction."

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Lee NR, Kim SB, Heo H, Lee YH. Comparison of the Effects of Manual Acupuncture, Laser Acupuncture, and Electromagnetic Field Stimulation at Acupuncture Point BL15 on Heart Rate Variability. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2016;9(5):257-263. doi:10.1016/j.jams.2016.06.002

"In conclusion, we found that manual acupuncture and electromagnetic field stimulation at BL15 using manual acupuncture and a PEMF (2 Hz and 460 gauss) caused identical patterns for the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system.*"

*For more information on the parasympathetic nervous system, see Reference [5].

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Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. (2017). Diagnosis and Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Noyes' Knee Disorders: Surgery, Rehabilitation, Clinical Outcomes, 1122-1160. doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-32903-3.00040-8

"The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the body's rest and digestion response when the body is relaxed, resting, or feeding. It basically undoes the work of sympathetic division after a stressful situation. The parasympathetic nervous system decreases respiration and heart rate and increases digestion."

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Lappin MS, Lawrie FW, Richards TL, Kramer ED. Effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on multiple sclerosis fatigue and quality of life: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Altern Ther Health Med. 2003;9(4):38-48.

"Specifically, subjects experienced significantly less fatigue during the four weeks they wore the active [PEMF] device than they did while wearing the placebo device."

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Beebe SJ, Lai, N, Hani, M, Lassiter, BP, & Kolterman, T. (2019, February 12). PEMF - Its Correlation to Enhanced Energy, Endurance, and Performance.

“The periodic increase in blood flow during the PEMF treatment regimen provides more nutrients and better oxygen - carbon dioxide exchange in skeletal muscle and a potential for greater energy production.” "PEMFs increase heat-independent blood-flow to skeletal muscle after treatment. Increased blood flow, like that during exercise, enhances nutrient delivery and facilitates gas exchange in active or injured tissues."

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Tucker J. Treating Chronic Pain with Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Treatment (PEMF). 11 Apr. 2019,

"Trigger points are like inflammation in that they are the body’s natural response to injury and illnesses. By combining the benefits of stretch poses and PEMF, patients are able to signal their brains that they can move further, and possibly regulate some inflammation or cell metabolism to diminish trigger points."



Iwasa K, Reddi AH. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields and Tissue Engineering of the Joints. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2018;24(2):144-154. doi:10.1089/ten.TEB.2017.0294

"Positive effects of PEMF on chondrocytes and cartilage were also demonstrated in in vivo studies.",and%20functions%20of%20OA%20knees



Funk RH. (2018, May 15). Coupling of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) therapy to molecular grounds of the cell. 

"Furthermore, PEMF can lead to chondroprotective effects on joint cartilage in animal models"



Gaynor JS, Hagberg S, Gurfein BT. Veterinary applications of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy. Res Vet Sci. 2018;119:1-8. doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.05.005

"The data reviewed underscore the usefulness of PEMF treatment as a safe, non-invasive treatment modality that has the potential to become an important stand-alone or adjunctive treatment modality in veterinary care."

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Beebe SJ, Lai N, Hani M, Lassiter BP, & Kolterman T, Kummitha CM, Tanaz R, (2019, March 26). Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) on Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages.

“PEMF effects on macrophages* can enhance the body’s curative mechanisms to possibly clear infections and tissue damage, dissipate inflammation, and promote healing.”

*This study was conducted on mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages.

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Huegel J, Choi DS, Nuss CA, Minnig MCC, Tucker JJ, Kuntz AF, Waldorff EI, Zhang N, Ryaby JT, Soslowsky LJ. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy at different frequencies and durations on rotator cuff tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2018 Mar;27(3):553-560. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2017.09.024. Epub 2017 Nov 22. PMID: 29174271; PMCID: PMC5835831.

“Based on the results of this study, we speculate that PEMF treatment may increase tendon cell metabolism, which in turn increases both collagen production and matrix remodeling.”

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Pawluk, William. Power Tools for Health: How Pulsed Magnetic Fields (PEMFs) Help You. Friesen Press, 2017.

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Tesla N (1999) High frequency oscillators for electro-therapeutic and other purposes. Proceedings of the IEEE 87:1282. doi: 10.1109/jproc.1999.771079

“One of the early observed and remarkable features of the high frequency currents, and one which was chiefly of interest to the physician, was their apparent harmlessness which made it possible to pass relatively great amounts of electrical energy through the body of a person without causing pain or serious discomfort.”

“This mode of applying high frequency currents in medical treatment appears to me to offer the greatest possibilities at the hands of the physician.”



Cihlář, Zdeněk & Vojtova, Lucy & Michlovská, Lenka & Kucerik, Jiri. (2016). Preparation and hydration characteristics of carbodiimide crosslinked lignite humic acids. Geoderma. 274. 10-17.

“...Higher moisture uptake and water holding capacity were observed in humic acids…”



Kucerik, Jiri & Petra, Bursakova & Prusova, Alena & Grebikova, Lucie & Schaumann, Gabriele. (2012). Hydration of humic and fulvic acids studied by DSC. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 110. 451-459. 10.1007/s10973-011-2178-1.

“It was also demonstrated that the higher content of oxygen in humic molecules is not the only indicator of higher water holding capacity. Instead, the porosity of humic matrix seems to contribute as an additional parameter into these processes.”



Dai C, Xiao X, Yuan Y, Sharma G, Tang S. A Comprehensive Toxicological Assessment of Fulvic Acid. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Dec 16;2020:8899244. doi: 10.1155/2020/8899244. PMID: 33381216; PMCID: PMC7758121.

“[Humic Acid] possesses various biology functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune-stimulatory, and antimicrobial properties, which have been used in agriculture, even as a supplementation used in human and animal clinical practices… As a dietary supplementation, [Fulvic Acid] can be found in a liquid form as a component of mineral colloids. It has been reported that FA has many reactive functional groups, including carboxyls, hydroxyls, phenols, quinones, carbonyls, and semiquinones, which possess the potent activities in metal removal and anti-inflammatory capabilities.” 



Caetano BF, de Moura NA, Almeida AP, Dias MC, Sivieri K, Barbisan LF. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) as a Food Supplement: Health-Promoting Benefits of Fructooligosaccharides. Nutrients. 2016 Jul 21;8(7):436. doi: 10.3390/nu8070436. PMID: 27455312; PMCID: PMC4963912.

“...FOS intake favors the growth of health-promoting bacteria while reducing pathogenic bacteria populations. Moreover, the endproducts of FOS fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), act as substrates or signaling molecules in the regulation of the immune response, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.”



LeBlanc, J.G., Chain, F., Martín, R. et al. Beneficial effects on host energy metabolism of short-chain fatty acids and vitamins produced by commensal and probiotic bacteria. Microb Cell Fact 16, 79 (2017).

“As previously stated in the introduction, to convert food into ATP, the energy storing molecule, numerous co-factors including B group vitamins are involved. Although most of these vitamins are not essential for each metabolic reaction, they are cofactors of enzymes that act as catalyzers so that the reactions can occur at a high enough rate to produce energy at a rate compatible with life. Most B group vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism and these functions.”



Sanmanee N, Areekijseree M. The effects of fulvic acid on copper bioavailability to porcine oviductal epithelial cells. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Jun;135(1-3):162-73. doi: 10.1007/s12011-009-8508-5. Epub 2009 Sep 2. PMID: 19727569.

“Although Cu-FA was significantly absorbed into the cells higher than Cu(2+), it showed less damage than tested with Cu(2+)... This suggested that the effect of FA was strong and had a lot of influence on the living surface of POEC, modifying the effect of Cu toxicity.”



Sabater-Molina M, Larqué E, Torrella F, Zamora S. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health. J Physiol Biochem. 2009 Sep;65(3):315-28. doi: 10.1007/BF03180584. PMID: 20119826.

“FOS have a number of interesting properties, including a low sweetness intensity; they are also calorie free, non-cariogenic and are considered as soluble dietary fibre. Furthermore, FOS have important beneficial physiological effects such as low carcinogenicity, a prebiotic effect, improved mineral absorption and decreased levels of serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Currently FOS are increasingly included in food products and infant formulas due to their prebiotic effect stimulate the growth of nonpathogenic intestinal microflora. Their consumption increases fecal bolus and the frequency of depositions, while a dose of 4-15 g/day given to healthy subjects will reduce constipation, considered one of the growing problems of modern society, and newborns during the first months of life.”



Zhou Z, Wang L, Feng P, Yin L, Wang C, Zhi S, Dong J, Wang J, Lin Y, Chen D, Xiong Y, Peng J. Inhibition of Epithelial TNF-α Receptors by Purified Fruit Bromelain Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation and Barrier Dysfunction in Colitis. Front Immunol. 2017 Nov 10;8:1468. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01468. Erratum in: Front Immunol. 2017 Dec 13;8:1769. PMID: 29176974; PMCID: PMC5686092.

“Bromelain, a complex natural mixture of proteolytic enzymes, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects... The effect of [Purified Fruit Bromelain] on colitis was evaluated by examining the inflammatory response and intestinal epithelial barrier function. Our results showed that both TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression were significantly increased in a colitis model, and the increase was significantly reversed by PFB. Colitis symptoms, including infiltration of inflammatory cells, cytokine profiles, epithelial cell apoptosis, and epithelial tight junction barrier dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by PFB.”



Kudryasheva, N.S., Tarasova, A.S. Pollutant toxicity and detoxification by humic substances: mechanisms and quantitative assessment via luminescent biomonitoring. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22, 155–167 (2015).

“The detoxifying effects of HS were shown to be complex and regarded as 'external' (binding and redox processes in solutions outside the organisms) and/or 'internal' organismal processes. The paper demonstrates that the HS can stimulate a protective response of bacterial cells as a result of (1) changes of rates of biochemical reactions and (2) stabilization of mucous layers outside the cell walls.”



Costa, G et al. “Changes in nutrient absorption in children and adolescents caused by fructans, especially fructooligosaccharides and inulin.” Archives de pediatrie : organe officiel de la Societe francaise de pediatrie vol. 27,3 (2020): 166-169. doi:10.1016/j.arcped.2020.01.004

“Fructans, such as inulin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS), have several effects on human health owing to their prebiotic character, including anti-microbial and anti-cancer effects, and to their influence on the absorption of minerals… Some studies reported that FOS appears to increase calcium uptake in the gut and stimulates the growth of bifidobacterium in the colon, reducing iron intake by enteric pathogens, and increasing the absorption of these minerals.”